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Backgammon Rules Navigation menu VideoHow to Play Backgammon
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.
The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.
It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'. There are two games of nardi commonly played:.
Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.
There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube. Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.
The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.
Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first.
There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess. In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.
As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
If the same number appears on both dice, they must be re-rolled. The player with the higher roll goes first using the rolled values. Subsequently, the players take turns rolling dice and moving their checkers.
Players must always move both numbers rolled if it is possible. If only one move is possible, the higher roll must be used. The first seed of Backgammon Rules was sown.
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Players usually agree to limit the number of automatic doubles to one per game. When a player is doubled, he may immediately redouble beaver while retaining possession of the cube.
The original doubler has the option of accepting or refusing as with a normal double. The Jacoby Rule. Gammons and backgammons count only as a single game if neither player has offered a double during the course of the game.
This rule speeds up play by eliminating situations where a player avoids doubling so he can play on for a gammon.
The dice must be rolled together and land flat on the surface of the right-hand section of the board. The player must reroll both dice if a die lands outside the right-hand board, or lands on a checker, or does not land flat.
A turn is completed when the player picks up his dice. If the play is incomplete or otherwise illegal, the opponent has the option of accepting the play as made or of requiring the player to make a legal play.
A play is deemed to have been accepted as made when the opponent rolls his dice or offers a double to start his own turn. If a player rolls before his opponent has completed his turn by picking up the dice, the player's roll is voided.
This rule is generally waived any time a play is forced or when there is no further contact between the opposing forces.
Rules in German. Rules in Italian. Rules in Portugese. Rules in Hungarian. Not sure I understand your questions completely but hopefully this answer helps.
Hi Andrew, I am not sure what you are referring to, could you be a bit more specific so I could fix the issue? Hi, Anthony thank you for pointing out that error.
There is not a 6 side on the doubling die and it has been corrected to reflects so in the rules. Source :www. You are always moving your pieces towards your home board.
The checkers can move only to an open point, meaning that the point is NOT occupied by TWO or more of your opponents pieces.
Source :usbgf. Doubles: If you roll doubles you get to move double the amount.Backgammon is a game for two players, played on a board consisting of twenty-four narrow triangles called points. The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each. The quadrants are referred to as a player’s home board and outer board, and the opponent’s home board and outer board. The home and outer boards are separated from each other by a ridge. The Backgammon game usually comes in an easily transportable case resembling a small suitcase. The lining of the suitcase serves as the game board and the inside contents include 30 checker pieces, 2 sets of dice, and 2 shakers. The Set-up. There are 24 triangles on the board known as points. Although Backgammon is played for stakes, this does not necessarily mean money - one can use counters, beans or one can just keep a score with pen and paper. However, the gambling element can be eliminated completely by following the normal rules and merely ignoring the doubling cube and the stakes. Backgammon Rules is designed to help people who are interested in backgammon. If you completely discover this game, I explain all the rules plain and simple. If you are already familiar with the game, I bring you a new perspective on the different tactics and strategies to improve. The main principle of the backgammon rules. Backgammon is basically a race game between two players. Each player has 15 checkers (or men) that he needs to bring home faster than his opponent. The checkers move on a board composed of 24 triangles, also known as point. A "backgame" is Kniffelblätter Zum Ausdrucken strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". The player rolling a double gets to make four moves, instead of two. Although Spiele City is the highest number depicted on Toto 13er Wette System Erklärung doubling cube, the stakes may rise to, and so on. Going six will put he in his home spot! In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English : gamenmeaning "game" or "play". Hey Jim, a player may start to bear off the moment they get all their checkers to their side. At the end of the game, if the losing Dart Entfernung has borne off at least one checker, he loses only the value showing on the doubling cube one point, if there have been no doubles. Not sure I understand your questions completely but hopefully this answer helps. He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system inthen organized the first major international backgammon tournament in Marchwhich Gaming Site royalty, celebrities and the press. The backgammon book. This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending Kostenlos Skip Bo Spielen Ohne Anmeldung game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting Bwin Roulette one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points. If a player is able to enter some but not all of his checkers, he must enter as Solitaire Klondike Kostenlos as he can and then forfeit the remainder of Sofortüberweisung Seriös turn.